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Active Ingredient: Capecitabine.
Xeloda (Capecitabine) is used for treating women with breast cancer that is resistant to other more commonly-used drugs.
Other names for this medication:
Capecitabin, Capecitabina, Capécitabine, Capecitabinum, Categor, Xabine.
The composition of the tablets includes the active ingredient capecitabine.
Additional ingredients: lactose, hypromellose, croscarmellose sodium, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, MCC.
The shell consists of: Opium peach Ys-1-17255-A, talc, titanium dioxide, iron oxide yellow and red.
Xeloda is produced in the form of coated tablets, packaged in blisters of 10 pieces. Tablets of 150 mg are placed in packs of 6 blisters each, the medication of 500 mg – 12 blisters each. In addition, packaging is possible in bottles of 60 and 120 tablets, respectively.
For Xeloda is characterized by antitumor action.
Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics
The main substance of the drug – capecitabine, is a derivative of fluoropyrimidine carbamate and oral cytostatic, capable of being activated in the tumor, showing a significant selective cytotoxic effect. In this case, the cytotoxic effect is characteristic of the metabolites of this substance.
Due to the sequential enzymatic biotransformation of capecitabine in 5-FU, increased concentrations of the substance are found, which are found in the tumor, and not in the healthy tissues surrounding it. As a result of a complex mechanism of action, the drug has an effect on harmful cells, inhibiting their further development.
Inside the body, capecitabine undergoes rapid and complete absorption. It is then transformed into metabolites: 5′-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5′-DFUR) and 5′-deoxy-5-fluorocytidine (5′-DFCT). Eating can reduce the absorption of capecitabine, but does not have a particular effect on metabolites. The maximum concentration is detected after 1.5-3.5 hours.
Metabolism of the drug occurs mainly in the liver, after which the metabolites are formed, which affect the affected areas.
Excretion from the body is carried out in the form of metabolites in the composition of urine, feces and a small part in unchanged form.
Indications for use
As a rule, Xeloda is appointed:
👉in combination therapy with docetaxel metastatic or locally advanced breast cancer, if chemotherapy is ineffective, including a drug from the anthracycline taxan, as well as contraindications to treatment with anthracyclines;
👉for adjuvant treatment of colon cancer;
👉in the treatment of first-line metastatic colorectal cancer, as well as common gastric cancer.
Refrain from taking this drug should:
👉hypersensitivity to capecitabine and other derivatives of fluoropyrimidine, other components of the drug;
👉established dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency;
👉simultaneous use of sorivudin, as well as its structural analogues;
👉severe renal failure;
👉less than 18 years old;
👉incompatibility with other components of combination therapy.
Care must be taken when:
👉age of patients from 60 years;
👉simultaneous treatment with oral anticoagulants.
Side Effects of Xeloda
In the treatment of Xeloda can develop side effects, characterized by great diversity. Usually they are noted in the form of: diarrhea, stomatitis, nausea, vomiting, palm-plantar syndrome, severe fatigue, weakness, lethargy, drowsiness.
Possible development of disorders associated with the activity of the digestive system, the condition of the skin and appendages, nervous, respiratory, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and other systems.
Deviations in the work of the sense organs, the hematopoietic system, the development of infectious complications, and changes in laboratory parameters are not excluded.
Other side effects include: fever, dehydration, weight loss, lethargy, pain in the back.
Instructions for use Xeloda (method and dosage)
Instructions for use Xeloda indicates that the drug is intended for ingestion, preferably within half an hour after eating the food, drinking water.
With monotherapy for colorectal cancer, colon and breast cancer, the standard daily dosage of the drug is 1250 mg to 2 single dose – in the morning and evening. Treatment is carried out for 3 weeks, then a break for 7 days is taken.
The purpose of the drug in combination therapy requires a special approach, strict consideration of the compatibility of drugs, features of the disease and the patient’s body.
In case of overdose, symptoms may manifest themselves in the form of diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, inflammation of the mucous membrane, bleeding or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract, suppression of bone marrow activity.
In this case, treatment includes therapeutic and supportive procedures, which allow to eliminate clinical symptoms and prevent the development of complications.
Appointment of Xeloda in combination with coumarin anticoagulants, for example: Warfarin and Fenprokumon, can have a negative effect on blood coagulation, causing bleeding.
It is recommended to use caution while treating cytochrome P450 substrates.
Combination with phenytoin can increase its concentration in the blood plasma. Therefore, regular monitoring of blood parameters is required.
Calcium folinate has no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of capecitabine or metabolites, but an increased toxic effect is not excluded, since its influence on their pharmacodynamics is possible.
Combinations with Sorivudine or its analogs cause clinically significant interactions with metabolites that can cause a fatal increase in the toxicity of fluoropyrimidines. For this reason, it is necessary to take a break of at least 4 weeks between taking these medications.
Storage of this drug requires a cool place out of the reach of children.