Vesiculitis or spermatocystitis is an inflammatory process that develops in the seminal vesicles.
The seminal vesicles are located laterally on either side of the prostate gland. They are covered in front by the bladder and prostate, and behind the rectum.
There are acute and chronic vesiculitis.
As an independent disease, vesiculitis is rare and often acts as a complication of inflammatory diseases of the urinary system (orchitis, prostatitis, epididymitis, urethritis).
The main culprit for vesiculitis is infection.
Pathogenic microorganisms can enter the seminal vesicles in various ways: through the urethra, from infected pelvic organs, or through the bloodstream from sources of chronic infection in the body:
- chronic prostatitis, pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis, cystitis;
- carious teeth, chronic tonsillitis, tuberculosis, sinusitis, furunculosis, osteomyelitis;
- sexually transmitted diseases (chlamydia, mycoplasma, gonococcus, trichomonas).
Factors provoking the development of vesiculitis:
- stagnation of blood in the small pelvis (sedentary work or sedentary lifestyle);
- weakening of the body’s defenses;
- Irregular sex life, interrupted intercourse;
- rare sexual intercourse;
- violent sex life;
- unbalanced diet (frequent constipation);
- trauma to the pelvic organs.
Acute vesiculitis begins suddenly, with signs of intoxication syndrome.
The temperature rises sharply to 39 ° C.
Patients complain of acute pain in the groin area, in the perineum, in the lower abdomen.
Pain radiates to the lumbar and sacral regions.
During bowel movements and urination, the pain intensifies due to the pressure of the crowded rectum or bladder on the seminal vesicles.
When the rectum is emptied, mucus streaked with blood (the contents of the vesicles) is secreted from the urethra.
After a bowel movement or urination, the pain subsides.
These symptoms are pathognomic (characteristic) signs of acute vesiculitis.
Also, for the acute phase of the disease, painful ejaculation is characteristic, and an admixture of blood is found in the semen. Erection often suffers.
Signs of chronic vesiculitis are similar to those of acute, but have a more worn-out form.
Patients are worried about aching or pulling pains in the groin, perineum, sacrum and lower back.
The pains come on periodically.
Erections become painful and frequent urination.
The quality of orgasm suffers (sensory perception is erased or the orgasm disappears altogether).
Sexual intercourse becomes short and painful.
The semen has a low sperm count.
To make a diagnosis, an anamnesis is carefully collected (identification of chronic diseases), an assessment of complaints and an examination is carried out. From laboratory research methods are assigned:
- a general blood test (accelerated ESR, leukocytosis, which indicates the presence of an inflammatory process);
- general urine analysis (high content of leukocytes, erythrocytes and mucus, which is normally absent and got into the urine from the seminal vesicles);
- Ultrasound of the prostate and seminal vesicles through the rectum – TRUS (signs of vesiculitis are enlarged, edematous seminal vesicles with a high fluid content);
- obtaining secretion from seminal vesicles and sowing them on a nutrient medium to identify the pathogen and determine sensitivity to antibiotics;
- spermogram (delayed dilution of the ejaculate, increased or decreased semen volume, low content of motile sperm).
Differential diagnosis of vesiculitis should be carried out with prostatitis, seminal vesicle tuberculosis, seminal vesicle sarcoma, urethritis, colliculitis.